The media sector

The media sector


Any one can create media but it’s the idea, creation, marketing and distribution which makes a message a medium. The media sector is a collection of businesses that produces media on a wide spectrum from games to newspapers. Each corporation produces their own media for their audiences to consume.

In this essay I intend to explore certain aspects of the media sector, particularly looking at news. How news has developed from broadsheet and tabloids to the television and online. This specific part of the media sector plays a leading role, everybody knows what news is, news has become iconographic through the way it is presented to us as the conventions of a newspaper, websites and television are repeated throughout all news organisations.

News has significantly developed since the 1700’s. In 1702 the first regular daily newspaper arrived, ‘The Daily Courant’. Towards the end of the 1700’s other newspapers came onto the scene that we still recognise today. In 1785 ‘The Daily Universal Register’ was published which is now ‘The Times’ which spawned ‘The Sunday Times’, in 1791 ‘The observer’ began publishing and in 1855 their was ‘The Daily telegraph’. These news organisations gradually developed but started out traditionally printing their papers in the style of a broadsheet. It wasn’t until 1868 that the ‘Press association’ was set up as a national news agency. Every news paper was then essentially owned and regulated by them.

But now digitalisation is taking its course and newspapers such as The Scunthorpe news has been drastically changes. ‘The Scunthorpe Telegraph’ was once a daily newspaper. But, on Friday the 12th august 2011 the production of the newspaper will only be distributed on a weekly basis. As did ‘The Torquay Herald Express’, both owned by ‘Northcliffe’.

As a result of ‘The Scunthorpe Telegraph’ newspaper moving to a weekly from a daily newspaper many jobs have been cut. ‘Mark Price’ the managing director said ‘we have pledged to do everything we can to limit the number of compulsory redundancies.’

However, the local newspaper moving weekly expresses peoples lack of time to read newspapers. Many now use the web as their source of news. Its free and convenient, Especially with many owning new phones with news applications such as the ‘Android’ and Iphone market. Scunthorpe Telegraph, (Friday July 15th 2011) – ‘Your Telegraph is going weekly from next month.’

Major news corporations for instance, Sky news, has become an international hit and frequently used as a result of the digitalisation of news. It is a 24 hour British and international media organisation and broadcaster that is only available via the television or internet. Sky News primarily focuses on breaking news and encourages ‘back-pack’ journalism. Backpack journalism being a journalist who carries all of their equipment with them and uploads straight to the web, essentially freelance. for example when colonel Gadaffi was captured and killed Sky News had uploaded content as soon as they could, such as an article and pictures, four hours before the BBC. The difference being that the BBC wait until they have definite facts and a well edited piece of journalism before publishing, were as Sky News upload a story, edit and then replace it so it consistently updates therefore they the news organisation with the latest news.

Sky News began broadcasting in 1989, it began with only four channels.

But now Sky News provides television, internet and radio content in the UK and Ireland. Sky News is owned by the ‘British Sky Broadcasting’ and partly owned by world renowned ‘Rupert Murdoch and his news corporation.

Rupert Murdoch also owns CNN, which is an American news service, he has over three thousand journalists over every continent and country. Sky employees 50 on-screen staff for reporting such as news presenters, weather forecasters and general reporters. 600 members of staff work off the scene such as, make-up artists, journalists and photographers.

Sky also employees editors and journalists for online content, Sky News online. The idea behind having Sky News online is to enhance their audiences experience of choosing Sky. Not only can they view the content that was on the television but they can access breaking news straight away they can select what they want to choose via categories such as sport, fashion, breaking news stories, current affairs and many more. Therefore online news almost becomes like a playground for consumers of online news.

Other key players of the media sector such as the BBC, also use the web as a point of distribution for their media products.

The BBC was founded in 1922 and still remains an innovative and creative organisation. According to the BBC’s website their mission is to ‘ To enrich people’s lives with programmes and services that inform, educate and entertain. ‘and their vision is ‘To be the most creative organisation in the world. Currently the BBC are a major media corporation and well known by a Vast majority of audiences.

Audiences recognise the BBC because they produce, distribute and broadcast many media forms, particularly news.

The BBC produce content for the television for numerous channels. Such as BBC one, BBC two, BBC three, BBC four, CBBC, CBEEBIES, BBC news, BBC parliament, BBC HD and BBC ALBA. Each channel produces different content on a wide scale of genres covering all age groups. Along with 15 radio channels –

  • Radio 1 -Radio 1xtra

  • Radio 2 – Radio 3

  • Radio 4 – Radio 4 extra

  • Radio 5 live -Radio 5 live sports extra

  • Radio 6 music -Asian network

  • World service -Radio Scotland

  • Radio Ulster -Radio Wales

  • Local Radio

Due to the Digital revoloution, the BBC now produce content for the web, anything that you consume via the television or radio is now available to watch from the BBC online, via the BBC Iplayer. The Iplayer is a service brought to its audience by the BBC which specialises in programmes that have already been, so that their audiences can catch up with programmes that they have missed. It is a very efficient and clever piece of technology that enhances the viewers consumption of media products. You can also use BBC Iplayer on Android phones, Iphones, PS3s, Wiis and XBOXS. In february 2011, the BBC changed their Iplayer slightly so that programmes from other channels could be found via the search tool bar which then navigates their audiences to other channels online content. For example 4OD (channel four on demand) this works the same as the Iplayer but is specifically designed to show programmes from Channel four and E4.

The BBC is funded by the Tv licensing scheme which interrelates with the media sector. At the cost of £145.50 The Tv license is required by every household that owns a televsion. It pays for all productions on the televsion, radio and online services. Online costs £0.66, television costs £7.96, radio costs £2.11 and other services cost £1.40 (investing in new technologies, such as upgrading the Iplayer so that it enhances audiences experience and creating endless possibilities for the web.) per month and household.

Other news sources like regional news corporations create their news targeting a minor audience. Such as The Hull Daily Mail, which is a 126 year old newspaper that focuses on the features, education and the current affairs of Hull and the sorrounding areas.

Recently i have visited The Hull Daily Mail, i found it interesting to see how a news room particularly works and how the people they employee play their roles to create online, radio and television news content.

The Hull Daily Mail makes 44,000 sales per day, 36,000 of these sales are in Hull and the other 8,000 sales come from the East Riding.

The Hull Daily Mail work on their content during the daytime from 9am untill 10.15pm. Their team consist of photographers, journalists and editors of al different categories who all work together to create a newspaper and online content.

The newspaper pages are all templated which makes the job or creating the paper quicker and more efficient as the editors know exactley where everything should be placed such as pictures, articles and adverts. This is a good idea considering that the alteration deadline is 10:15 pm and the actual deadline for the newspaper to be completed is 11pm.

The newspaper has 18 reporters in total which is a large amount for a regional newspaper, international newspapers will have triple this maybe more. Together they work as a team, they produce headlines together, monitor other media and even work with the emergency services. The emergency services have special rights to view their newspaper library and the emergency services sometimes give information to the newspaper to help their background research and stories. The newspaper is sometimes overwhelmed with stories and somedays its hard to find a story worthy of the front page. However, an on call reporter and newspaper are on standby so that they can change the paper, this rarely happens.

The Hull Daily Mail have a dedicated Hull sports page and a weekly sports paper that is inside of The Hull Daily Mail. Mark is the deputy sports editor, his job role is to make sure that the articles are ready for publishing and he also works along side the sports reporters and journalists to give them any neccessary information or to distribute work to them. He also works with youth sports clubs. Along side this Phil is the Hull City football clubs personal reporter for this newspaper. Phil reports all game details and also gets alot of information and work from contacts he has made through working with the football club. And finally James, who is a rugby reporter for the Hull Daily Mail, he reports all news from Rugby teams in Hull and surrounding areas. Including game details, upcoming games and interviews.

The Hull Daily Mail also have a photography department. The department consists of a team of six and Jim who is the photographer editor. Three members of staff work per day primarily because Hull is a small town. The photgraphic kit that is supplied by The Hull Daily Mail and owned by all photographers is – a laptop, tripod and charging equiptment.Three photographers is more than enough to cover news stories that have been specifically allocated to them, a daily job sheet is produced daily to tackle who gets what job. Apparently the photogrpahy team afre never actually in the news station. They take photos of the jobs that they have been given and then take photos of anything that they find interesting and good enough for the newspaper or online. Jim who edits the photos uses a programme called ‘Fotostation’ to edit their photos ready for submission and print. He also uses a programme called ‘Tenon’ which is a piece of software used to produce designs, all newspapers use this software.

‘When we talk about globalization, we all say the internet is global and will become more global; the media became more global – certainly the ownership is more global.’ Kevin Kawamoto (2003: p106)

Journalists are now being trained to use video and cameras along side their articles, the idea being that every story should have visuals to put their stories into context, therefore attracting the audiences attention to that specific story.

‘Organizations are active participants in society. This becomes abundantly clear when we consider the issue of social change. Paradoxically, organizations both foster and impede social change.’ (Richard H Hall 1991: p17)

When the digitalization of news arrived it created double the amount of jobs therefore making the news aspect of the media sector more powerful.

In news room there are essentially 16 main jobs.

Editor – The editor is the last person to edit the paper, they make sure that the content is suitable and correct.

News editor – The news editor distributes jobs to a collection of journalists.

Reporter – Finds stories to write about.

Photographer – Takes pictures asked for under the supervision of a boss, for example The Hull Daily Mail, seven photographers are managed by the chief photographer ‘Jim’ who edits the photos.

Layout sub editor – Designs pages for print and web.

Copy sub editor – Edits content for the correct page layout.

Picture editor – Edits pictures, usually the head of the photographers.

Features editor – The feature editor creates content for events such as the theatre and the cinema.

Designer – creates a look so that the newspaper or website looks aesthetically pleasing to their audience.

Graphic artist – creates images to enhance published stories.

Imaging operative – Digitalizes prints and photographs ready for print.

Advertising manager – last person to view the advertising inside the paper and online, display and classified advertisements.

Marketing manager – Advertises and markets the paper.

Print manager – takes charge of the printing of the newspaper.

Distribution manager – Distributes copies of the paper and advertises online so that the audience receive the paper.

When a newspaper is created online they use the same stories online with various editing so that its suitable for online. Newsroom employees now have to learn skills to be able to write for web and use various digital equipment. The more digital media savvy you are the more employable you become.

In this digitalized revoloution not everyone wants to buy the newspaper or watch the televsion as their source of news. Many people use the internet as their source of news primarily because they can view any news they want at a simple click of a of a button. The online age has created opportunities for news, they can deliver news more efficently to their audience than what a newspaper can, they also have indepth search engines so that people can navigate to what ever catergorie or news article they desire. They can also use other mediums such as video so that the audience can visually see news so that they relate better to the medium presented. Being online is also a strong method to keep news corporations in existance. However, news websites have regulations, for instance, they legally have to give people a platform to comment on stories and other content such as pictures, videos and links. Especially now all major news corporations, even local use ‘Twitter’ and Facebook’ as a source to distribute news to their audience, prior to this companies also use social media platforms as a method of retrieving news and using them as sources or hotspots for news. They also have the same legal obligations as printed news for example, libel, privacy and copyright and therefore comment boxes and links have to be monitered closely.

In light of the digital revolution and the current state of the media sector i believe that digital age will grow and develop vastly blocking out eventually all aspects of print, especially with the recent development that is interactive magazines. There is no real need for print in this age. The majority of people have access to the internet and there for can use the internet as their news source. Infact, nearlly everyone owns a phone capable of connecting to the internet and with news websites and applications on mobile phones anyone can view news straight away. Even network providers such as ‘Orange’ use their homepage for news distribution especially about their company. News is something that everybody comes across daily. Wether its published or decoded from word of mouth it i envitable.



Organizations – Structures, Processes and oucomes. Fifth edition. Richard H.hall.(1991: p17)

Digital journalism – Emerging media and the changing horizons of journalism. Kevin Kawamoto (2003: p106)

Internet Date accessed – 01/01/2012 Date accessed – 24/12/11 Date accessed – 11/01/2012 Date accessed – 15/01/2012 Date accessed – 22/12/2011


Hull Daily Mail – sourced from notes taken on a visit to The Hull Daily Mail.

Edited fire piece

A petrol station in Barnetby was damaged by an explosion last night. Firemen appeared on the scene and spent over eight hours tackling the blaze. In the early hours of the morning, a secondary fire broke out in an adjoining transport cafe it was dealt with quickly.

Humberside Chief Fire Officer George Peters told reporters that the original source of the blaze could well have been a lighted cigarette carelessly discarded.

He added: “I am asking for the mutual co-operation of the public by asking them to stay away from the vicinity of the fire until the emergency is finally over.”

Mrs Jean Blackburn said everything had been totally destroyed in the fire and that she was determined to find the cause of the incident. She had been called onto the scene shortly aftermidnight. No members of the public were in close when the fire broke out and the majority of the petrol tanks were empty at the time.

She managed a smile on her face and said she looked forward to a new beginning for the business once everything was cleared u. Mrs.Blackburn estimated the cost of the damages at £50,000 or more.

Writing exercise

In an hour, rewrite the piece below omitting or amending any words that you think are not necessary. It is not the best flowing story, but has been put together to include as many unnecessary words or phrases as possible. There are at least 20 examples, possibly 25 – find as many as you can.


A PETROL filling station in the village of Barnetby was badly damaged by a violent explosion last night.

The brick and corrugated building was totally razed to the ground in the blast.

Firemen from several towns in the county of North Lincolnshire appeared on the scene and spent over eight hours tackling the blaze.

In the early hours of the morning a secondary fire broke out in an adjoining transport cafe and was quickly dealt with.

Humberside Chief Fire Officer George Peters told reporters that the original source of the blaze could well have been a lighted cigarette carelessly discarded.

He said the cafe was in close proximity to the petrol filling station and their first priority was to keep the general public away from the scene. Teams of firefighters had linked up together to pour thousands of gallons of foam on the blaze.

A number of onlookers from the village of Barnetby had gathered in the vicinity of the station to watch was going on.

He said the fire service would probably have to spend more hours at the scene, probably winding down around the hour of noon.

He added: “I am asking for the mutual co-operation of the public by asking them to stay away from the vicinity of the fire until the emergency is finally over.”

Meanwhile, the manager of the petrol filling station, Mrs Jean Blackburn, said everything had been totally destroyed in the fire.

Mrs Blackburn, who is the widow of the late David Blackburn, the local Barnetby businessman who originally built the station and the cafe 20 years ago, added that she was determined to find the root cause of the incident. She had been summoned to the scene shortly after midnight. Thankfully, no members of the general public were in close proximity when the fire broke out. And most of the petrol tanks were quite empty at the time.

Mrs Blackburn said the blaze had created an acute crisis for her and her family, but she was hopeful that once the root cause had been established it would soon be back to normal.

She managed a smile on her face and added she looked forward to a new beginning for the business once the mess was cleared up.

Mrs Blackburn estimated the cost of the damage topped the £50,000 mark.

Review of my day at the fruit market.

Journalists are bad people.

As I explored the fruit market I noticed that it was pretty much derelict, besides some local whole sellers.  I decided to try and interview employees that worked in the area, which didn’t go down to well.

Firstly, I approached two men that worked in a whole seller. One of the men claimed he was Russian and didn’t speak very good English. I just thought he didn’t want to be interviewed, primarily because he most definitely spoke perfect English and as it turned out he wasn’t Russian, which did not confuse me, at all.  He then quietly muttered ‘Journalists are bad people’. This seemed very stereotypical of him.

The second person I interviewed using the Dictaphone said that he didn’t care much for the artistic sensation and or ‘Fruit’ as it doesn’t  involve or concern him and he had little if any interest at all. He clearly just works in that location because that’s where it’s situated.

Having had a dead end interview encouraged me to continue my quest of finding local residents and employees, and so, I did.

I then noticed a small jewellery shop on the corner of Humber Street and opted to investigate.  Courteously greeted by the shop owner who recognised that we were part of the Hull college group asked if we would like to join in on their photography session, so we did.

We were asked to stand in the background and have a discussion whilst they photographed a colleague melting glass. Unfortunately, we didn’t get an interview with the owner, but, we did get an interview with the photographer – Karl Andre.  Who spoke to us about his thoughts and feelings of the artistic sense around the area and about his personal photography.

Carrying on walking around the fruit market, more specifically, Humber Street, it began to rain.

It now seemed inevitable that I wasn’t going to retrieve any more pictures or interviews so; the group ran into the closest pub ‘The Minerva’. Upon the wall were pictures of a ship, ironically named ‘The Minerva’. It became quite clear that we had wondered into a pub which shared a historical background and must have played a big role in the fruit market once upon a time. The pub itself played a leading role of a tribute to the ship that once was.

When the rain had stopped we continued our journey back to the college.  We walked back through Humber Street and back on to the Marina, then to be stopped by the apparent Russian, whole sailing, and hater of journalists.

Basically, the guy stopped our group to slander journalists some more, in particular, female journalists.  He started talking about a female journalist called ‘Teresa May’ and referred to the females in the group as bad journalists or rather ‘you will make bad journalists’ , based on the fact that female journalists weren’t as judgemental as male journalists. Basically because ‘Teresa May’ said that an illegal immigrant should be allowed to stay in the country because he owned a cat. Essentially, the guy had clearly caught the wrong end of the stick and missed the hint of sarcasm the ‘May’ enforced.  She was quite possibly almost as sarcastic as his tone of voice was, although she was less patronising. He hastily ended his lecture by throwing a large bag of chocolate buttons at us and saying ‘ere have some goodies’.

first person – The Humber bridge

In 1928 a proposal was produced by Hull City Council. The idea was to create a bridge that ran from Hessle to Barton. In 1959 the Council was granted approval to construct the bridge. In 1973 the construction began. After eight years the bridge was finally complete and people were able to drive across it and walk across it. The bridge created many jobs and many a debt. But, the convenience of having the bridge over ruled the debt it came with.

The bridge is an excellent idea. It’s amazing to be able to visit my family, shop and socialize in Barton. The connection from the South bank to the North bank has opened so many doors. Instead of using the ferry or having to drive the long way around to your destination you can use the bridge. In my opinion it’s very well-situated however, the price makes myself and others think twice about using the bridge.

Recently, the prices to cross the Humber Bridge have rocketed. The prices currently stand at £1.30 for motorbikes and £3.00 for cars. Quite clearly these prices have outraged road users. The extortionate prices could jeopardise the payment of the debt as less and less people will want to participate in using it.

For bridge users such as my father the ludicrous prices massively affect his wages. As a teacher, he crosses the bridge twice a day. That’s £6.00 per day and £30.00 per week. Not only does this upset me and my father it affects everybody that uses the Humber bridge. Surely, there is more than just me and my dad who use the bridge often.

As it stands there quite clearly was no alternative but to increase the toll prices to cross the bridge because of the amount of debt. However, entrepreneur and local business man Malcolm Scott wants to purchase the Humber Bridge’s £330 million pound debt for the price of £100 million. This idea however bizarre is in aid to decrease the toll prices by 50% in order to gain more road users using the bridge. This idea will apparently be more sufficient and convenient for the debt and road users. However, up against North Lincolnshire council this is going to be a tough decision to make for the Hull City Council. North Lincolnshire Council also shares the same ambitions as Mr. Scott. Therefore,   the toll prices could be cut to as much as half price by late 2012, fantastic news for the Humber bridge users.

Although the Humber Bridge has done a lot for the community by joining both banks together it is becoming less used. As a person who is extremely fond of using the bridge I cannot afford to pay those prices as much as I do. Therefore, something like the new proposals from Mr. Scott and the North Lincolnshire Council need to come into action as soon as possible. In my opinion it is a revolutionary idea and will help so many people including myself. The Humber Bridge will be what it was once more.

In conclusion, it appears that the Humber bridge toll prices are inevitably going to decrease. If this new proposal for the debt succeeds then it will cost me, my dad and many others £3.00 per day and £15.00 per week to travel across it. I suppose resulting in the debt being paid quicker like suggested, I definitely think that more people will use it from then onwards.

Adaption of a piece wrote about the public sector strike.

National strike portrayed by Government as a ‘damp squib’. A strike that was joined by a total of two million public sector workers was seen as ‘historic’. David Cameron told the Commons that the “irresponsible and damaging” action was definitely not supported as he defended the Government’s Pension plans. Officials from 30 unions boasted about the amount of support from some organisations. Len McCluskey, leader of unite reported that the protests revealed the resentment that public sector workers held against the pension plans. Yet the strike didn’t seem to affect Heathrow airport. Passengers said that their border controls were “better than usual”. Union officials had made accusations toward the government. Stating that they had been “ramping up” possible airport disruption. Colin Matthews, chief executive of airport operator BAA, said – “The whole airport community working together the past few days we now have more immigration officers on duty and fewer passengers arriving than would otherwise be the case. Putting us in a better place to avoid serious delays and widespread disruption at Heathrow that were projected last week”. Other public sectors such as the department of health told the NHS they must not discharge statistics regarding staff on strike, cancelled operations or appointments. Christina McAnea, head of health at Unison, said: it is outrageous that the department of Health are desperately trying to hide the fact that the NHS services are being disrupted across the UK. London ambulance services are also revealing that 42% of staff was on strike, under “increased pressure” after receiving 30% more 999 calls. The strike also closed over three quarters of schools in England. Primary school teacher Teresa Hughes said: Teachers like me are having to work more for less. “I don’t think anyone wanted to go on strike, and we don’t take a decision like this lightly”. Alex Mackenzie, of the CSP also said: No-one wanted to strike, but our members felt we had to take a stand.